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  • br Future view and implications

    2024-04-12


    Future view and implications The selection and spread of multi(drug)-resistant microorganisms over the last decades has become a major and global public health concern [35]. Two growing threats originating from the fungal kingdom, i.e. Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida auris[36], [37], re-emphasize the need for reproducible, medically relevant AFST [2], [3]. As the most important outcome of any AFST is the fast and reliable prediction of resistance in pathogenic fungi, laboratory scientists are anxious to have antifungal assays run concomitantly with fungal identification. Rapid and parallel detection of genetic (e.g. FKS mutations) or phenotypic (e.g. MALDI-TOF MS profiling) recognition of antifungal resistance should become part of the routine identification protocols for clinical isolates in the mycology laboratory. Therefore, assessment of FKS mutations in C. glabrata by the aforementioned assay platforms should require some optimization [22], [24], whereas work is in progress in our laboratory to extend MALDI-TOF MS-based AFST to C. glabrata.
    Transparency declaration
    Microbial contamination in aircraft fuel tanks is a current phenomenon, which can seriously cause damage and heavy safety problems. Indeed, the microorganisms induce chemical corrosion of the tank walls due to their ability to produce organic acids. Among the different fuel contaminants the most commonly reported is Hormoconis resinae (H. resinae) a filamentous fungal strain. In order to limit the development of the strain various organic biocides have been previously reported [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. They are usually dissolved in the fuel phase. This means that NNC 55-0396 biocide must be added regularly in the tank to prevent microbial growth. Another way is to incorporate chromate based compounds in fuel tank coating, to provide additional bioactive properties to the walls and to inhibit chemical corrosion by organic acids generated by fungus. However, chromium was recently targeted by the European legislation REACh because of its carcinogenic effects. The main objective of this study was to develop a new system to substitute the biocides used presently. This system must be less toxic to humans, and remain active for a duration approaching the lifetime of the tank. The approach selected was the development of a smart system of multifunctional polymeric particles that can deliver a biocide following an acidic trigger due to the presence of microorganisms. This system would be integrated in a coating formulation to apply on tank walls, to promote bioactivity and thus inhibit microbial-induced corrosion inside fuel tanks. Numerous examples of biocides active against H. resinae were provided by Gaylarde [6], some of which are currently commercialized by Dow Chemicals. Other biobased glycosylamine compounds were more recently synthesized by Muhizi and showed high bioactive efficiency against bacterial and fungal strains (Fig. 1) [7], [8]. The presence of hydroxyl functions on these compounds can be foreseen as an opportunity for conjugation to a highly reactive acrylic monomeric species to obtain a new family of glycosylamine monomers. In this perspective, the use of an enzymatically hydrolyzable ester bond could provide to the system the ability to release the biocide thanks to an acidic trigger. In this contribution, the high bioactive potential of glycosylamine compounds was combined with hydrolyzable sugar-based polyacrylates to prepare new «smart» poly(acrylate saccharide) particles. The development of H. resinae would trigger the release of the glycosylamine biocide through its own enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester bonds on the particles. These particles were synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization of a protected glycoacrylic monomer namely 6-O-acryloyl-1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-D-galactopyranose (pGalA), followed by hydrolysis of the isopropylene functions and functionalization with dodecylamine. Then the antifungal potential of the functionalized particles has been evaluated.