Archives

  • 2018-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2019-12
  • 2020-01
  • 2020-02
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-04
  • 2020-05
  • 2020-06
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • 2020-09
  • 2020-10
  • 2020-11
  • 2020-12
  • 2021-01
  • 2021-02
  • 2021-03
  • 2021-04
  • 2021-05
  • 2021-06
  • 2021-07
  • 2021-08
  • 2021-09
  • 2021-10
  • 2021-11
  • 2021-12
  • 2022-01
  • 2022-02
  • 2022-03
  • 2022-04
  • 2022-05
  • 2022-06
  • 2022-07
  • 2022-08
  • 2022-09
  • 2022-10
  • 2022-11
  • 2022-12
  • 2023-01
  • 2023-02
  • 2023-03
  • 2023-04
  • 2023-05
  • 2023-06
  • 2023-08
  • 2023-09
  • 2023-10
  • 2023-11
  • 2023-12
  • 2024-01
  • 2024-02
  • 2024-03
  • 2024-04
  • 2024-05
  • The LOX hydroxide metabolites are converted to

    2024-04-16

    The 15-LOX hydroxide metabolites are converted to secondary lipid mediators such as lipoxin A4 from 15-HETE and protectin D1/resolvin D1 from 17-HDoHE [45] (Fig. S3). Importantly, all of these secondary lipid mediators have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties [46], [47], [48]. Lipoxin A4 inhibits chemotaxis of neutrophils and eosinophils and stimulates monocyte chemotaxis and macrophage phagocytosis [49], [50], [51], [52]. Protectin D1 and resolvin D1 also inhibit neutrophil infiltration and stimulate non-inflammatory phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages [46]. Therefore, it is highly likely that the infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils that we observed in the unaffected skin area of Ht rats (Fig. 1) was at least partly caused by decreases in these 15-LOX metabolite-derived lipid mediators. We observed increased collagen levels, which is indicative of fibrosis, in the unaffected skin areas of Ht rats (Fig. 1A and B). Fibrosis is induced by chronic inflammation caused by various stimuli, including persistent infections, allergic responses, radiation exposure, and tissue injury [53]. The affected skin of Ht rats exhibited atopic dermatitis-like skin symptoms, increases in S. aureus infections, and infiltration of mast cells, eosinophils, and T lymphocytes [16], [18]. Here, we observed infiltration of leukocytes such as mast cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils, even in the unaffected skin of Ht rats (Fig. 1A and C). Thus, we speculate that inflammation in the unaffected skin of Ht rats caused mild fibrosis. Microarray analyses also indicated the pro-inflammatory state of the unaffected skin area of Ht rats. For example, expression levels of the chemokine-encoding genes Ccl20, Cxcl1, and Cxcl2 were increased (Table 2). Cxcl1 and Cxcl2 stimulate chemotaxis of neutrophils and endothelial cells, and Ccl20 promotes chemotaxis of T and 2-D08 mg [54]. Expression of Il36b, which encodes the cytokine IL-36β, was also elevated in Ht rat skin (Table 2). IL-36 cytokines include IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ, which activate the IL-36 receptor [55]. IL-36 cytokines are expressed predominantly in keratinocytes and are important for regulation of skin inflammation [55]. Transgenic mice expressing IL-36α in basal keratinocytes were reported to exhibit a psoriasis-like skin phenotype accompanying acanthosis and hyperkeratosis [56]. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression levels of the Ca2+ binding protein-encoding genes S100a8 and S100a9 were increased in Ht rat skin (Table 2, Table 3). S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the S100 protein family and form homo- and heterodimers [31]. S100 proteins are mediators of Ca2+-associated signal transduction, and they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several epidermal diseases [31]. S100A8 and S100A9 are present at low levels in normal skin; however, their abundances were found to increase in skin under pathological and stressed conditions such as psoriasis, epidermal injury, and ultraviolet irradiation [57], [58], [59], suggesting S100A8 and S100A9 play a role in epidermal proliferation [31]. TRPV3 is a Ca2+ channel; therefore, the gain-of-function mutation causing OS syndrome elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentrations [2], [7]. Considering that S100A8 and S100A9 are Ca2+ binding proteins, it is possible that elevated Ca2+ concentrations directly activate S100A8 and S100A9, leading to the epidermal proliferation that has been observed in the affected skin area of OS patients and model animals [1], [18] OS patients suffer from keratotic lesions on the palms, soles, and periorificial (mouth, nose, eyes, ears, genital, and anal) regions [1]. Conversely, Ht rats and DS-Nh mice develop skin symptoms on the neck, shoulder, and lateral/perioral areas of the face [17], [18]. Although there are differences between OS patients and rodent models in where the symptoms appear, the types of skin symptoms, such as bacterial infection, infiltration of leukocytes, and itching, are similar. Hence, rodent models are useful for investigation of OS pathogenesis. The differences in symptomatic regions may be caused by different environmental conditions; for example, in rodent models, animals are maintained under fixed temperature, humidity, and diet, whereas these factors would be variable for OS patients. OS patients are therefore likely to be influenced by various exogenous stimuli that would not apply to rodents living in a restricted environment, including physical pressure, infection, allergens, and variable diet, temperature, and humidity.